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Octavius Augustus Caesar
CommonName:     Augustus
FullName:  Octavius Augustus Caesar
Reign:  43 BC-14 AD
Title:  Emperor
Born:  63 BC
Died:  14 AD
Relationship:  The name later taken by Octavian
    Gaius Octavius Caesar, as he was called when he took up the inheritance of Julius Caesar, was the man who defined the term "emperor" as we have come to know it. A less promising candidate would have been difficult to find, since in 44 BC he was not only still a "boy", as Antony called him, but one in poor health and with little tactical skill. Julius Caesar, however, no mean judge of men, made Octavius his principal heir, so he must have seen something beyond the wimpy facade.
    Born in 63 BC, of equestrian stock (from the section of the population who served as the cavalrymen when Rome's army consisted of citizen levies; hence neither from noble nor lower-class family), his only connection with the upper classes was of recent origin. His father was a new senator; this father died in 59. Octavius's mother was Julius Caesar's niece; in 59 Julius was just beginning his career. Due to Julius's influence Octavius received a variety of (mainly minor) public posts as part of his training; while still in training he learned that Julius had been assassinated and he was his posthumously adopted heir.
    He could have refused; that was the advice of most of his contacts. He was 18, with few allies of note, and with powerful enemies. Foremost among these was Marc Antony, who felt himself the real heir of Caesar, whatever Caesar himself had to say, and he seized Caesar's papers and assets. Octavius had to raise funds on his own to pay debts and legacies, which did not endear Antony to him.
    Octavius found his first allies in the Senate, especially among those who had regarded the assassination of Caesar as an unpleasant necessity. Foremost among these was Cicero, who regarded Octavius as an ally against the crude military thuggery represented by Antony and his ilk. Octavius for his part had every intention of avenging Caesar, but was willing to bide his time, and thus was able to use the Senate for his own ends. The Senate underestimated him; he consolidated his position, then switched sides to ally with Antony against the "Liberators" (the assassins of Caesar). The Triumvirs ("Three Men"; the third was Lepidus) crushed them, then purged the Senate of opponents. Not for them the clemency of a Julius; Octavius even turned Cicero over to Antony to murder, despite their supposed friendship.
    Masters of the Roman world, the three divided it among themselves. Antony demanded, and received, the richest portion, namely the eastern provinces. Lepidus drew North Africa; Octavius was seemingly stuck with the barbarous parts of Europe. This share, however, included Italy, and Rome itself, albeit supposedly the others were allowed significant influence. Octavius remembered what Antony forgot: that military power was the key to successful rule, and that constant training against tough opponents was the key to that power.
    Relations between Octavius and Antony were strained at best, and a revolt in Italy by Antony's wife Fulvia did not help. After Fulvia's death the two made some attempt to come to terms; Antony married Octavian's sister Octavia, whose loyalty to her new husband did Octavius no end of good, since it made Antony look like such a cad to treat her with contempt.
    Octavius had another great asset in his conflict with Antony, namely his old friend Agrippa. This school chum was not only a very competent tactician but entirely loyal as well; a rare enough combination anywhere. Octavius himself developed formidable strategic and political skills, while Antony lost his army in a sloppy invasion of Persia, lost his political advantages through his open infatuation with Cleopatra, then suffered final crushing defeat at Actium. The training, against Germanic barbarians and Pompey's son's pirates, had paid off.
    Octavius made the most of his victory. He founded the city of Nikopolis, "City of Victory", in commemoration, and he saw the sights in Alexandria. Like most commanders he admired Alexander, so he went to see the tomb of the great Macedonian; when he was invited next to see the tombs of the Ptolemies, he is said to have replied, "I came to see a King, not a row of corpses".
    The Senate, ever willing to be subservient to the man with the legions, voted Octavius all sorts of powers, as well as the title Augustus, by which he was generally known, in 27 BC. Augustus himself showed much deference toward the Senate, doing his best to act as though he were its servant rather than its master; he let it have the form of power, while he kept the substance. Augustus thus made his principiate (from Princeps, first citizen) palatable by using the forms of the Republic.
    His later rule was looked on by subsequent generations of Romans as a sort of golden age, as he did much to reform and improve the Roman state. He reformed the laws, and acted as a social engineer. Most notable, according to his biographers, were his reform of the marriage laws; given that he considered it in the best interests of Rome to have the people produce as many legitimate free citizens as possible he gave privileges and tax breaks to the fathers of large families, while doing his best to penalize the childless and unmarried. He also engaged in lavish public works projects; given that the imperial capitol was so vulnerable to flooding from the Tiber, as well as to fire, he had much of it rebuilt. He rebuilt so much that he later claimed to have found Rome a city of brick, and left it one of marble.
    His generals, notably first Agrippa, then Tiberius, kept busy waging war against German barbarians. In one of these wars Varus, through gross negligence, perished with three legions in the Teutoburger Forest in AD 9. In general, however, Augustus's generals kept things under control.
    His family life was somewhat less successful. He married Livia Drusilla, divorcing her from her first husband, and they got along well enough. They had no children, however. Livia had two of her own; the first was Tiberius, and the second, Drusus; she was pregnant with the latter when Augustus married her. Augustus had a daughter Julia by a previous marriage; she was first married to Agrippa, then after his death to Tiberius.
    Augustus's designated heirs were his grandsons through Julia, namely Caius and Lucius, who he formally adopted. Unfortunately for him, first Caius, then Lucius, died, and Julia with her daughter Julia were proven guilty of all sorts of immoral conduct. He then adopted the third grandson, Agrippa Posthumous, along with Tiberius, as his heir; the former's unsuitability and thuggish nature made Augustus send him into exile.
    His attitude to life can be seen from his use of various proverbial phrases, preserved for us by Suetonius. His motto in general was "festina lente", roughly "hasten slowly". He often commented that someone would repay him "on the Greek Calends", as the Kalends was a term used only in the Roman calendar, it meant "never". Another was "Let us be satisfied with this Cato", namely to be concerned with the situation as it is, not as it would be were it ideal.
    Augustus died in 14 AD, leaving a state which, thanks largely to his efforts, was prosperous, well-run, and probably as beneficial to the well-being of the people as a military dictatorship could possibly be.
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CASTULO, extra big AS (double unit?). 24,8 gr., 31 mm, 5 mm thick !!!!!. Villaronga 7 (pag. 331). In this city was born Himilce, Hannibal's iberian wife O: Diademed iberian male head to r. R: Sphinx to r., in front star, below Iberian legend "KASTILO" (almost all out of flan becouse it is too small for this big coin (it is too thick and trunk-pyramidal). I have to notice you that these flans were casted, not cutted

Augustus, AE31,Castulo, Spain, Diademed head right. / Helmeted Sphinx advancing right. SGI 15. vF / VF, dusty green
     patina. The Sphinx was the personal symbol of Augustus, and he used it on his seal ring.
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Augustus, AE28, (12.99g) c. 25 BC, Asia Minor Mint, CA coinage, CAESAR Bare head right. / AVGVSTVS in rostral wreath. RPC2235. F, dark patina, with some areas of dirt.
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Augustus 27 B.C.- A.D14. AE AS  Rev : PROVIDENT S.C facade of altar enclosure of Ara providentiae Augusti with double panelled door N VF-VF
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AUGUSTUS u.Rhoemet.+Pythodoris, AE 21,ss-v
Augustus, AE25, Kingdom of the Thrace, (8.85g) [BASI/\EOSPOIMHTA/\KOY] Jugate heads of Rhoemetalces, and Pythodoris right.
     / [KAISAPOSSEBASTOY] Bare head of Augustus right. RPC1711. VF, dark patina.